Single Event Trauma - Some examples include: car accidents or other accidents; experienced or witnessed assault; witnessed death or suicide; life-threatening illness requiring aggressive/painful treatments; etc.
Ongoing or Long-Term Trauma* - Some examples include:
emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse; neglect; racism; bullying; witnessed domestic violence; kidnapping; living in a war zone; witnessing the prolonged and painful death of a loved one; etc.
*When trauma is prolonged and occurs in an environment of captivity - such as is often the case with child abuse - it is referred to as complex trauma (Herman, 1992).
● the child's age and developmental stage when the trauma occurred;
● the kind of support the child received prior to, during, and after the trauma;
● whether the child was under additional stressors (physical or emotional) at the time of the trauma;
● how long the trauma lasted; and
● whether the trauma was caused intentionally by another person, and if so, whether that person was in the role of a trusted care giver.
(Courtois, 2004; Ford, Courtois, Steele, van der Hart & Nijenhuis, 2005; Herman, 1992, van der Kolk, 2002)
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